Potential of solar energy

Every day, the sun delivers an enormous amount of energy to the earth's surface in the form of electromagnetic radiation. A resource that is inexhaustible and renewable. Despite a distance of around 150 million kilometers, the sun's light only takes around 8 minutes to reach the earth. When sunlight reaches the earth's surface, it shapes the metabolism of plants and has a significant impact on the earth's weather.

In addition to wind and water power and all fossil fuels, which are ultimately also based on solar energy, since the discovery of the photovoltaic effect it has also been possible to harness this energy directly for our modern lives. Solar modules, also known as photovoltaic modules, are used for this purpose.

This is a great opportunity for the energy transition to shape a sustainable and clean energy future.

Principle of a solar module

A solar module is the ingenious tool that enables the conversion of light - i.e. electromagnetic radiation - into electricity. A solar module consists of several solar cells that are made from a semiconducting material such as silicon. The process by which a solar module converts sunlight into electrical energy is known as the photovoltaic effect.

The photovoltaic effect occurs when photons (light particles) with sufficient energy hit the solar cells. The photons transfer their energy to electrons in the semiconducting material of the solar cell, releasing them from their original bound state and allowing them to move freely. To make the freely moving electrons usable for energy supply, an electric field is generated by arranging differently doped layers in the solar cell. When sunlight hits the solar module, the released electrons move in one direction due to the electric field. This directional movement generates an electric current, which is made accessible through the connections of the solar module. The electrical energy can be used to operate electrical devices or for storage in batteries.

Structure of a solar module

Each solar module consists of several layers, which are pressed together with pressure and heat during lamination. The glass primarily protects the solar cells, absorbs mechanical forces and allows the relevant spectrum of solar radiation to pass through to the solar cells. The EVA films are also translucent and define the position of the solar cells. The plastic film on the back serves, among other things, to protect against the ingress of liquids.

In addition to solar modules with frames, so-called glass-glass solar modules are also manufactured. As the name suggests, the difference lies in the design. In glass-glass solar modules, the solar cells are installed between two panes of glass and, due to the mechanical stability of the two panes of glass, no additional frame is usually required. One advantage of glass-glass solar modules is that they allow light to pass through to the solar cells from both sides.

Principle of a solar power plant

In order to make electrical energy from solar modules available in the power grid, a solar power plant is required that consists of other components in addition to the solar modules. For efficient operation, several solar modules are usually connected in series in order to obtain a high output with low current. Such a chain of modules (string) generates a direct current that is converted into alternating current using an inverter and can then be fed into the power grid. Solar systems are typically installed on roofs or open spaces, with the mounting system ensuring that they are optimally aligned with the sun.

Monitoring systems are used to monitor the performance and record the energy generated. These enable the system operator to monitor the system's performance and identify potential problems at an early stage. As an option, solar systems can also be equipped with battery storage systems that store surplus energy and make it available for use at times of low solar radiation or when required.

Altogether, these components work together to convert sunlight into electrical energy that is either used on site or fed into the power grid. Solar systems have established themselves as a sustainable and environmentally friendly source of clean energy and play an important role in reducing dependence on fossil fuels and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

We are currently working on developing and manufacturing a prototype of the upcycling system in several development stages. If you have any suggestions or questions about the upcycling system, please do not hesitate to contact us. 

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